Timeline of Women Reporting War
American women have always participated in the field of journalism. From the very beginning of colonial times, women were active in the press, either in the printing process or writing for family newspapers. Decades later, the “Literary Ladies” of the antebellum era were writing on “feminine” topics for popular magazines. And in the latter part of the 19th and early 20th centuries, women were crusading in print on behalf of social justice causes such as abolition, suffrage, and, urban and industrial reform. While the number of women journalists was limited and their participation was circumscribed by prevailing social attitudes that limited the kinds of stories about which it was appropriate for women to report, women did continue to make significant strides – even onto the path of the rarest of assignments: the war reporter.
1847 -- Margaret Fuller: 1810-1850
By the time Margaret Fuller became a war correspondent in 1847, she had already lived several full and passionate lives -- from “Literary Lady” to writer to newspaper reporter to foreign correspondent to war reporter.
Horace Greely, New York Tribune publisher, sent her to London to report on the literary news there, but Fuller - impassioned by the Italian patriot movement -- moved to Italy to write eye-witness accounts of the French military bombardment of the Italian patriots.
Before Fuller, junior military officers provided war reports, consisting primarily of combat and battle maneuver stories. Part entertainment, part news, theses front page stories lured readers with tales of the front lines, generals, battle manoeuvers and of who won and who lost.
Fuller's reports were the first eyewitness accounts by a civilian reporter of a foreign battle for a home front audience. Her “effects-of-war” stories about the suffering of the Roman people at the hands of the French onslaught were the kind of stories previously relegated to the back pages while the combat stories dominated the front page.
The very fact that Fuller, a woman, was reporting a war story was notable. War was considered men’s work, both the fighting and the writing of it. Historically, women were excluded from both. Women were sidelined as nurses, mourners, camp followers, or collateral damage; these stories were rarely recorded.
Fuller worked by day nursing the wounded, and her reports, giving voice to her war work, brought these rarely recorded “woman’s angle” stories to a mass audience.
1860 -- The Women's Pages
What did the “Women’s Pages” and war reporting have in common? Absolutely nothing. Only an exceptional woman, such as a Margaret Fuller, was able to work on the front section of the newspaper, which is why it was difficult for any female reporter to become a war reporter. A job in journalism for most women in the United States in the late 19th and the early part of the 20th century, meant the “Women’s Pages.”
The “Women’s Pages” were created after the invention of the elevator and, subsequently, the big city department stores. The purpose of the “Women’s Pages” was advertising. Physically segregated into what was known as the “hen coop”, women reported on society news, appropriately genteel literary topics, and domestic and fashion concerns that related to the advertising of a given day. The line between editorial content and advertising was murky at best.
War reporting was still in its formative stages as a profession well into WWI. During this time the explosion of print media – books, newspapers and magazines – combined with the rise of the independent “New Woman” – women who eschewed the domestic sphere and insisted on financial self-sufficiency and meaningful work. This new ethos created a pool of women with the confidence to break in to the quintessential male profession of war reporting.
The military, however, had its own goals. It used the accreditation process as its first line of control over war correspondents, and the War Department refused outright to accredit women. Nevertheless, several of these “New Woman” women, despite being untrained as journalists, were sent to Europe by editors to cover “the woman’s side of the war.” The Saturday Evening Post’s editor, whose main readership was two million middle-class women, believed that there was a woman’s point of view or “woman’s angle”. He also maintained that, “The big story of a war is never at the front. It is in the hospitals and in the homes.”
Women reporters such as Mary Roberts Rhinehart, Corra Harris, Inez Milholland, Mary Boyle O’Reilly, Alice Rohe, wanting an opportunity, were only too happy to oblige with stories about hospitals, wounded children and women, England’s Women’s Emergency Corps and Women’s Army Defense, famous restaurants turned into food kitchens, dressmaking shops making clothes for soldiers, etc.
While some women saw reporting the activities behind the frontlines as a moral duty, some were plagued with doubt that this was not the real story. Even women such as Harris who wrote stories about the toll of war on women and children, who saw war “as a male phenomenon,” and who observed that “Men’s sacrifice in war is at least recorded by history…while women’s story goes untold” recognized that “being banned from the front because of their sex proved to be the biggest obstacle to women journalists” for professional advancement. The cold reality was: professional standards in war reporting were measured by the industry-defined yardstick of being where the action was: with the soldiers or at the frontlines.
1915: Mary Roberts Rhinehart: 1876 -- 1958
Mary Roberts Rhinehart was among the first American correspondents to reach the front during WWI. Despite the military’s refusal to accredit women at this point in the war, she had the full support of her editors because she had both fame and literary clout due to the popularity of her stories for the Saturday Evening Post, which then had a readership of two million middle-class women. She informed her editors, “I do not intend to let the biggest thing in my life go by without having been a part of it.” She was thirty-eight and a literary powerhouse. With her American Red Cross affiliation, she sailed to Europe in 1915 and got within two hundred yards of enemy lines, closer than most of her male colleagues.
1917: Peggy Hull: 1889 -- 1967
In 1917, twenty-five years before Ernie Pyle would popularize reports about the daily lives of soldiers, Peggy Hull went to Europe to report her version of the “woman’s angle”—personal stories about events in the daily lives of soldiers behind the frontlines. A reporter since 1901, Hull signed these articles as simply “Peggy”. They were published initially in the Paris edition of the Chicago Tribune and then, because of their popularity, in the Chicago edition as well. In 1918, after repeated attempts, Hull became the first American woman to become an officially accredited war correspondent.
1920’s: “Cassandra’s of the Coming Storm”
By the time the United States entered the war in 1942, several American women had already been on the scene in Europe for years: Dorothy Thompson, Sigrid Schultz, and Helen Kirkpatrick. Both Thompson (1924) and Schultz (1926) became Berlin bureau chiefs of competing newspapers. Later, Kirkpatrick became London bureau chief for the Chicago Daily News in 1939. They all had the ambition and imagination to take advantage of conditions that at the time made it possible for women to enter into these positions: first was the volatile political climate of central Europe in the 20’s and 30’s; secondly, the profession of foreign correspondent was a fairly recent development; and thirdly, as a result, there was not the prestige and perks that would normally lure men. From this beginning, they became the reining Grande Dames of foreign reporting before the war broke out. Indeed, they have been called the “Cassandra’s of the Coming Storm” for their prescience, backed up by incisive analysis and impressive reporting based on the top-level access they all cultivated.
1926 – Sigrid Schultz: 1893 – 1980
Widely viewed as the equal of her male colleagues William Shirer and Edward R. Murrow, Schultz was American born, European educated, and Berlin bureau chief for the Chicago Tribune from 1926 and broadcaster for the Mutual Broadcasting Network for which she broke the news of the Hitler-Stalin pact.
Schultz was extraordinary by any standard, especially the one applied to women. Sorbonne educated, a graduate of international law, she was fluent in five languages, ambitious, smart, and an adherent to the European tradition of social beauties – she dressed very well.
When she recognized the Nazi party could no longer be ignored, she calculatedly sought the acquaintance of Nazi Captain Hermann Goering and others. A gourmet chef, she entertained them with dinner parties, culling information which she then reported in a column written under the pen name John Dickson. Goering soon realized Schultz was playing a double game and attempted to entrap and arrest her. He called her the “Dragon Lady of Chicago”; her colleagues called her “Adolf Hitler’s greatest enemy.”
Her columns warned of concentration camps, the Nazi takeover of government, factories, businesses and labor unions, and the hundreds of anti-Semitic laws being passed. But Chicago Tribune publisher and vocal isolationist Colonel Robert R. McCormick censored many of her stories. Indeed, her biggest career scoop -- the non-aggression treaty between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union -- which she predicted as early as April, she announced by radio on the Mutual Broadcasting System on August 24, 1939 while, the Tribune reported the treaty using Associated Press copy.
1927: Dorothy Thompson: 1893- 1961
Dorothy Thompson, one of the “Cassandra’s of the Coming Storm”, successfully straddled two mediums, radio and print, during the WWII era. At the height of her career her syndicated newspaper column reached an estimated eight million readers and her NBC radio-broadcasts an estimated five million listeners. In 1940 a TIME magazine cover story about her, Thompson was described as being second in power and prestige only to Eleanor Roosevelt.
Thompson became Berlin bureau chief for New York Evening Post 1927. Like Sigrid Schultz, Thompson had the ambition and imagination to take advantage of the conditions that at that time made it possible for women to enter into these positions. She also created her own environment from which to gather information with her own salons, dinner parties made up of her own “brain trust” of influential people. In 1934 she was expelled from Germany for having offended Hitler and the Third Reich with her articles and her book I Saw Hitler.
Her accomplishments also won her the title “one of the first American women foreign bureau chiefs,” but she resented this kind of acclaim. Thompson believed that women should be judged by the same merits as men and not be made into spectacles by such dubious distinctions. Nevertheless, Thompson was labeled variously as “Richard Harding Davis in an evening gown” or as the most famous “newspaper man” of her time. She was complimented as having the “brain of a man,” to which she responded “which one?”
Thompson became a syndicated columnist in 1936 for the New York Herald Tribune after the paper’s publisher Ogden Reid became impressed by her ability to distill complex foreign issues for a predominantly female audience at a forum sponsored by the Tribune. “On the Record” debuted in 1936, and men became the main audience. Her column had a greater audience than Pulitzer Prize winning New York Times columnist Anne O’Hare McCormick and Walter Lippman. In addition to her three times a week newspaper columns, a monthly column in the Ladies Home Journal, yearly lecture tours, she was also a regular on NBC radio news.
1930’s: The New Woman
If the “New Woman” was an idea in the ‘20s . She was now a force to be reckoned with in the ‘30’s. Assertive, fearless, and articulate, she could hold her own in a man’s world.
Her profession? Reporter or lawyer: “The Front Page” (1931), “Smart Blonde” (1937), “Torchy goes to War” (1938) or “His Gal Friday” (1940).
In Europe several American women reporters fit this description perfectly. Taking advantage of the still uncodified war reporting profession and the social climate post-suffrage that allowed for smart independent women, Margaret Bourke-White, Virginia Cowles, Frances Davis, Martha Gellhorn, Josephine Herbst, Helen Kirkpatrick, Sigrid Schultz, Dorothy Thompson, Betty Wason and others were there to witness and record brewing events.
1937 -- Martha Gellhorn: 1908-1998
Martha Gellhorn began her war reporting career covering the Spanish Civil War. She had met Ernest Hemingway at a bar in Key West the previous year, and she joined him in Madrid in 1937 because she wanted to be "where the boys are going." She felt ill-equipped to write about war since she was unfamiliar with military tactics or vernacular. Hemingway encouraged her to write what she did know about: people. Thus began her style of war reporting where she focussed on the human-cost-of-war.
For more information, please see Martha Gellhorn page.
Martha Gellhorn 1908-1998; The Face of War (1959); Travels with Myself and Another (1978); The View From the Ground (1988).
1938 Betty Wason
From 1938, Betty Wason broadcast for CBS Radio Hitler's march across Europe: the surrender of Sweden, the occupation of Norway and the German army's rampage through the Balkans.
In the winter of 1940, Wason travelled with Greek troops as they repelled the invasion of fascist Italy, pushing them back into the snowy forests of Albania. Sharing their meals and makeshift sleeping quarters, Wason came to know intimately the life of a soldier-- the mud-caked bandages, the frequent hunger, the deaths of friends, and above all, the dread of what was to come. The Greek soldiers knew all too well that even if they could keep Mussolini at bay, the real question was --how would they fare against Hitler's relentless advance?
But now the Nazis had come to Athens. CBS wanted five broadcasts every day, and Wason was their only correspondent on the scene. Every day, she reported another German victory. And every day, her report was broadcast by a stand-in, "Phil Brown." Despite the fact that Wason was a seasoned reporter, CBS executives believed that Americans found women’s voices acceptable only on commercials or reading literature and that radio listeners strongly preferred hearing war news from a man.
Two weeks later, Greece surrendered. A voice on the radio warned Athen’s citizens to keep off the streets. When Wason looked out her window that day, she saw the swastika flying from the Acropolis.
With the Nazis now occupying Athens, Wason was stranded and forbidden to leave. Finally, after nearly two months, she was escorted under Gestapo guard to Berlin and detained as a suspected spy. The two male reporters arrested with her were quickly released, but Wason was held for another week, released only when Harry Flannery, the head of CBS intervened.
Back home in the United States, Wason naturally turned to CBS for a job, but she was turned down. Regardless of their accomplishments overseas, there was no place for women reporters at home. Her only option was to return to the position she'd left years ago, as assistant food editor at McCall's, a magazine for women.
1939 -- Helen Kirkpatrick: 1909 - 1997
She began as a researcher, then co-founded the Whitehall News of London, an influential newsletter because she believed the threat of Nazism was not being adequately or seriously covered.
She authored two widely influential books on foreign policy – This Terrible Peace (1938) and Under the British Umbrella: What the English Are and How They Go To War (1939). And in 1939 she became London Bureau Chief for the Chicago Daily News, taking the position by default since her male counterparts had gone to the front.
Later in the war, she was the subject of a top-level meeting in which her request to cover the war zone from the front lines was debated. The source of contention: latrines. The argument ended when one officer wagered: "Helen Kirkpatrick could dig a latrine faster than anyone in this room. " There were no takers.
By the end of the war she had covered more than one front: Italy, France, North Africa, and Germany. As well, she was on the committee to decide which reporters would cover the D-Day landings in Normandy.
Her frontline reports of the bombing of Dover and the London Blitz, as well as her low-pitched decisive voice, so impressed Edward R. Murrow that he attempted to hire her for Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). CBS told him that they already had Mary Marvin Breckinridge, and one woman on-air was enough.
1941 -- Margaret Bourke-White
Information and photograph to come soon. Please check back.
1942 - US enters WWII
Once the United States entered the war, many female reporters wanted a war reporting assignment. Initially, the U.S. military refused to accredit women (See Scholar Michael Sweeney's essay on accreditation.) because all reporters are a burden on the military -- they have to be fed, clothed, housed, and protected. But accrediting women would require an additional burden: special facilities (toilets and housing) would have to be created for them.
As the war progressed, more and more men were needed to fight. The Women's Auxiliary Corps (WACs) became the solution to freeing up men who held administrative jobs within the military. But sending women into a military zone, even into the rear areas to perform administrative work, was enormously controversial.
Women reporters were assigned the task of reporting on the activities of female military personnel so that Americans would see that they were safe and leading normal lives.
Over the course of the war nearly 140 female reporters were accredited.
Getting overseas was a long, frustrating, and arduous process for all correspondents, male or female. The bureaucratic obstacles alone would prove daunting to many. First, the War Department had to agree to the assignment, do security clearance, and provide accreditation documentation. Then the Department of Immigration and Naturalization (INS) took over. The INS issued passports and immunization certificates. Unfortunately for female correspondents like Chapelle, the INS was headed by Mrs. Shipley, a formidable personage with a deeply held belief that women should not be exposed to the dangers of a war zone. She did what she could to keep women at home.
If women journalists could get past Mrs. Shipley, they found themselves face to face with myriad government restrictions. Reporters were then assigned the rank of captain to ensure their protection if they were captured, and attached to a unit. The Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF) opened and closed battle zones to reporters at will, depending on their sense of the danger. And individual generals had their own rules about women war reporters assigned under their command. Finally, they needed to secure passage overseas. Reporters were not always high on the priority list, and women reporters even less so.
For the women reporters who did make it to a war zone, they were contained with the Women’s Army Corps (WACs) or Army nurses, away from the battlefront. The government cited safety concerns or logistical reasons such as lack of women’s latrines. The women reporters’ stories were inevitably informed by the physical fact of their separation from the front lines. They wrote about the day-to-day lives of the soldiers, nurses, field-hospitals, the WACs. In professional terms this would mean these women would never have a front page story, nor would they garner the promotions, prestige and awards that the telling of such stories would attract.
1943 -- Ruth Cowan: 1901-1990
Ruth Cowan began her war reporting career in January 1943 when she was shipped overseas with the Women's Auxiliary Corps (WACs). Her assignment was to cover the activities of the female military personnel. (For more information, see Ruth Cowan page.)
In the days following D-Day in June 1944, Ruth Cowan waited in London along with other women war reporters for the official orders that would permit her to cross the Channel to France. Meanwhile, in the days after D-Day German forces had unleashed on England the VI rocket, or buzz bomb. In an interview with General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme Allied commander, Helen Kirkpatrick commented on the buzz bombing: "It's too damned dangerous here. I want to go to France." Eisenhower issued orders for women to be permitted to cross.
Those orders still did not provide women reporters with access to the facilities they needed to report: Jeeps, press camps, teletypes, on-site censors. Ever resourceful and having covered the field hospitals to which they were assigned, Cowan and Iris Carpenter hitched a ride to the front near Saint-Lô hoping to find action to report on. But when the German's began bombing nearby Iris Carpenter's ear drum was shattered, and the two women received a tongue-lashing from an Allied command officer who demanded where their Jeep and driver was. As explanation, Cowan shouted back: "We're women correspondents."
Ruth Cowan is featured in the film "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII.
1944 -- Dickey Chapelle: 1919-1965
Dickey Chapelle began her war reporting career in 1944 when she was shipped to the South Pacific to photograph the activities of the nurses and the use of whole blood in transfusions for the wounded. (For more informatio, please see the Dickey Chapelle page).
Dickey Chapelle is featured in the film "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII.
Dickey Chapelle, What's a Woman Doing Here? A Combat Reporters Report on Herself (1962).
1944 -- Iris Carpenter and Lee Carson
Information and photograph to come. Please check back soon.
1944 -- Lee Miller: 1907-1977
Formerly a model, famously the lover of Man Ray, then a photographer in her own right, Lee Miller by July 1944 was in Normandy, France photographing from a field hospital for Vogue magazine. Her photographs of the nurses, doctors and wounded soldiers were received by British and American Vogue editors with gratitude that they could contribute to the war effort by showing readers the valiant hard work of the medical teams and the bravery of the soldiers. Publishing the photographs also alleviated the guilt about the frivolity of their magazine during the war.
In August 1944, Miller was sent to St. Malo to do cover the efforts by the Civil Affairs team to move civilians back into the town after the war, but contrary to official information, the war in St. Malo was not over. Instead, she found herself in the middle of a battle where she photographed the Allied air attacks on the German holdouts in the Forte de la Cité. The only photographer for miles her photographs of a mushroom cloud documented one of the first uses of napalm. The photographs were confiscated by British censors. She was arrested for violating the terms of her accreditation by entering a combat zone.
Later in April of 1945, Miller and fellow photographer David Scherman arrived at Dachau: Her outrage only fueled her photographic output. She cabled Vogue editor Audrey Withers: I IMPLORE YOU TO BELIEVE THIS IS TRUE.
1944: Marguerite Higgins: 1920 - 1966
Marguerite Higgins, a young and fearless reporter for the New York Herald Tribune, had entered the war late and was determined to prove herself as a reporter, not as a woman reporter. Her goal was to do front page, above the fold, headline news, not stories directed by the Office of War Information. Not only was she young, she looked like Marilyn Monroe, and the whiff of sexual innuendo always plagued her.
In late April 1945, she and a Stars and Stripes reporter commandeered a Jeep , drove past the frontlines into Nazi-held territory, where, to their horror, they discovered the concentration camp at Dachau.
Realizing that several rifles were trained on her from the watchtower, Higgins knew it was futile to run. Instead, she demanded, in German: “Kommen sie her, bitte. Wir sind Amerikaner.” (Come here please, we are American.) Twenty-two guards walked out with their hands up. She and her colleague entered the camp, where they announced to the prisoners in English, German and French that they were free.
When a U.S. military commander arrived hours later, he tried to throw Higgins out of the camp, warning her about disease. “Goddamit to hell,” she responded. “I’ve had my typhus shots! Lay off me, I’m doing my job!”
She went on to become the Tokyo bureau chief for the Tribune. As a result, she was one of the first American reporters on the ground when the Korean War broke out. Only with the intervention of General Douglas MacArthur was she able to stay in Korea to cover the war, for which she became the first female reporter to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1951 for her international reporting there.
1965 -- Viet Nam
Many women reported during the Viet Nam war. Please check back soon for an expansion of this section.
1978 -- Susan Meiselas
"Central America was barely in the news when I first left. I read about what was happening in the newspaper, and there weren't any images. Therefore, there was nothing that said, "I need to be there." I was curious to understand the circumstances that were determining this conflict: a dictatorship that the United States had supported for a long period of time; a family in power -- the Samosas; and this popular movement that was growing...."
"In my mind the thing that I was most criticized for, which seems ironic now, is that I was working in color at a time when very few people had worked in color previously. It was mostly a black-and-white tradition. And color was seen as aestheticizing violence."
"I look back to my work as responding to what I was seeing. I didn't have images in my head. People look at a photograph I made, that people called Molotov Man, as a gesture that mimics Robert Capa's A Fallen Soldier. I don't think that image was really etched in my mind when I was making that image." -- July 8, 2009
Meiselas appears in "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII.
Photograph by Tara Sgroi, 2009.
1980 -- Martha Teichner
"I certainly heard the phrase "war reporting is not a job for a woman" many times. In many respects, the refusal to consider allowing women to go to war was a kind of benevolent paternalism. It was meant well because fathers and husbands didn't want to see women put in harm's way. At the same time, they failed to recognize that this was denying opportunity to women who wanted equal treatment, equal pay, wanted to be able to get ahead as correspondents, and be in a position to cover the most important stories that has the most important historical impact." -- July 23, 2009
Martha Teichner is a correspondent for "CBS News Sunday Morning" and recipient of numerous Emmy Awards for her reporting. Teichner appears in "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII. Please see Teichner describe reporting a conflict in South Africa.
1985 -- Christiane Amanpour: 1958 --present
Born to a British mother and Iranian father, Amanpour spent time in Iran while growing up. Her sister wanted to go to journalism school, but decided after a few days it was not for her. Amanpour went to the school to ask for the family’s money back, and when they declined she replaced her sister. Thus began, Amanpour’s trajectory to become one of the leading reporters of our time. She began working at CNN in 1983, and a report in1985 won the DuPont Award for her work on Iran, gaining her international recognition. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Emmy and Peabody Awards.
1985 -- Deborah Amos
"When I started covering wars, these were wars that targeted civilians... I always used to ask myself when I would arrive somewhere "Who would I be if this was happening where I lived?" And I tried to find who I would be and do a profile about them. Because it would help me to understand how to express what it was that they were going through...I felt that was my responsibility. That what you always missed when you were reading about the war -- any war -- is what it was like for people who have to live through it. And so I kind of made that my business that I would tell the stories of the people who were having to live through it." -- July 23, 2009
Deborah Amos ia an award-winning correspondent for National Public Radio and author of Eclipse of the Sunnis: Power, Exile, and Upheaval in the Middle East (2010). She appears in "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII. Please see Deborah Amos describe how she knows whens she has found a war story.
1987 -- Janine di Giovanni
"I was a graduate student studying English literature and I went to a refugee camp in Gaza for the first time. I was so horrified by what I saw that my life changed forever. I could not go back to my safe academic world of books and essays. I ended up changing my entire life, basically staying in Israel.
Then the war in Bosnia came – and the thing about the war in Bosnia was that it very much was my generations’ Vietnam. We truly believed that we had an obligation on many levels to report it, mainly because no one wanted to hear about it after a while; they were confused by who was on whose side: who was the good guy, who was the bad guy. But there was a human story there that really needed to be told.
The way I’ve always worked -- and I was very much inspired by Martha Gellhorn – was to report the human side of war. Not the armies, not the kind of gun power or what weapons were being used. What mattered to me, what I felt could convey the horror war most clearly to the public, was to tell the human story. -- May 2007
Janine di Giovanni is a correspondent for the Time of London and author of Madness Visible: A Memoir of War (2003); Ghosts by Daylight : Love, War, and Redemption (2011). She appears in "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII.
1988 -- Deborah Copaken Kogan: 1966 -- present
"I was in Afghanistan late '88, '89. I was in the refugee camps. Because I was a woman, that was my only advantage. I could be in the refugee camps and the women would not have to be covered in front of me. So they took off their veils, and I have these images of refugee women that are some of my favorite images of the war in retrospect. But I was green; I was young; I was ambitious; and I thought: "I'm going to be a war photographer. I've got to get out there in the whizzing bullets. I've got to get out there in the war." Ironically, once I was out there in the war, it was a lot less photographically interesting, so to speak. The photographs that I treasure the most from that time are of the refugees. That's the real effect of war -- refugees, children without fathers, without mothers, mothers without husbands, widows. That is what war does. Yes, people are dying in the field, but to me, the real result of war is what happens afterwards." -- July 23, 2009
Deborah Copaken Kogan is an award-winning photo-journalist and author of Shutterbabe (2000). She appears in "No Job For a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII.
2001 to present
Many American women are now reporting conflicts around the globe. Please check back as we add their profiles.